Conventional Sources of Energy
1. fossil Fuels:
Those fuels which form by fossils of living organisms by the biochemical processes over millions of years. These fuels are called fossil fuels.
Examples: Coal, petrolium and natural gas.
The Dependence on coal as a source of energy:
(i) The usase/exploitation of coal has been made the industrial revolution possible.
(ii) We are even today depended on fossil fuels like coal and petrolium for the supply of the growing demand of energy.
(iii) Even today most of our energy requirements (about 70%) are used by fossil fuels mainly coals.
Merits of fossil fuels as source of energy:
(i) As domestic fuels- coals, kerosine and natural gases.
(ii) Uses in vehicles - Petrol, diesel and CNG.
(iii) Uses of coals and other fossil fuels in thermal power plants.
Disadvantages of burning fossil fuels:
(I) They produces smokes on burning causes air pollution.
(II) They releases oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulpher on burning which are the main cause of acid rain.
(III) They also releases carbon dioxide, methane and carbon monoixde which increase green house effects.
Acid Rain: The oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur that are released on burning fossil fuels, which are acidic oxides and cause acid rain.
Disadvantages of Acid rain:
(i) Acid rain harms trees and plants by which they dry, it also harms leaves and fruits.
(ii) Acid rain harms our water as well as aquatic animals by which they die.
(iii) Acid rain also harms our soil, that cause increasing its acidic nature.
The management of pollutants produced by fossil fuels:
(i) By increasing the efficiency of the combustion process.
(ii) Using various techniques to reduce the escape of harmful gases and ashes into the surroundings.
- Weshould conserve the fossil fuels.
Reasions for conservating fossil fuels:
(i) Fossil fuels are non-renewable source of energy.
(ii) These are in limited quantity in nature.
(iii) These form in over millions years.
The Principle of Turbines:
Turbines work by mechanical energy, there have to provide a movement to spin its rotor-blade. This movement is aquired by moving materials like water, stem or by the air. It provides energy to rotor. This roter turns the shaft of the dynamo in order to transforming this provided mechanical energy into electric energy. This is the principle of turbines.
The process of Producing electricity:
In the process of producing electricity, there is used the various sources of energy to turn the turbines. These are the following sources of energy.
(i) By falling water from high.
(ii) Producing stem by heating water.
(iii) By high speed wind.
A simple Model of Thermo power Production
This process is as follows:
Turning the turbine by using energy sources
Mechanical energy given by turbine to turn the shaft of dynamo
Producing Electrical energy by the Dynamo
2. Thermal Power Plant
- Large amount of fossil fuels are burnt every day in power stations to heat up water to produce steam which further runs the turbine to generate electricity.
- There is produced energy by burning of fossil fuels in these plants, which is further converted into electrical energy. Therefore this is called thermal power plant.
- Many thermal power plants are set up near coal or oil fields. Because, the transmission of electricity is more efficient than transporting coal or petroleum over the same distance.
3. Hydro Power Plants
- The kinetic energy of falling or flowing water and the potential energy of water at a height are used in hydro power plants to convert these energy into electricity.
- Since there are very few water-falls which could be used as a source of potential energy, hydro power plants are associated with dams. In the last century, a large number of dams were built all over the world. In order to produce hydel electricity, high-rise dams are constructed on the river to obstruct the flow of water and thereby
collect water in larger reservoirs. The water level rises and in this process the kinetic energy of flowing water gets transformed into
potential energy. The water from the high level in the dam is carried through pipes, to the turbine, at the bottom of the dam
Dam constructions and associated problems:
(i) Opposition to the construction of Tehri Dam on the river Ganga and Sardar Sarovar project on the river Narmada.
(ii) The severe risk of flooding on beaking dam.
(iii) The vegetation which is submerged rots under anaerobic conditions and gives rise to large amounts of methane which is also a green-house gas.
Harm resulting from the construction of dam:
(i) Many of the agricultural lands are destroyed by construction of dam.
(ii) Human habbitats are destroyed.
(iii) The many peoples and animals of their surrounding have to displace by which there creates the problem of satisfactory rehabilitation.
(iv) It harms the eco-system.
Improvements in the Technology for using Conventional Sources of Energy:
There are two famous conventional sources of energy in order to improve in the technology, e.i
(ii) Wind energy:
The fuels which we obtain from plants and animals products are called bio-mass. Examples: wood, cow-dung, dry leaves and stems etc.
- Bio-mass is a renewable source of energy.
- They do not produce much heat on burning.
- They burn with flames.
- They produce a lot of smoke on burning.
- The burning of bio-mass is harmful for health.
Charcoal (Woody Coal): When wood is burnt in a limited supply of oxygen, water and volatile materials present in it get removed and charcoal is left behind as the residue.
Properties of charcoal:
(i) Charcoal burns without flames.
(ii) It is comparatively smokeless.
(iii) It has a higher heat generation efficiency.
Bio-gas or Gobar gas:
The common name of bio-gas is Gobar gas, As the starting material is mainly cow-dung.
These are the common features of bio-gas:
- Bio-gas is produced in a plant.
- The plant in which bio-gas is produced is called bio-gas or Gobar gas plant.
- This gas is used in villages and rular areas as sources of lighting and fuels.
- Bio-gas is an excellent fuel as it contains up to 75% methane.
- It burns without smoke.
- It leaves no residue like ash in wood, charcoal and coal burning.
- Its heating capacity is high.
- Bio-gas is also used for lighting.
- It has been an efficient fuels by using technology.
- The slurry left behind is removed periodically and used as excellent
manure, rich in nitrogen and phosphorous.
Formation of Bio-gas:
Anaerobic micro-organisms that do not require oxygen decompose or break down complex compounds of the cow-dung slurry and remains of vegetables skins. such the bio-gas forms.
5. Wind Energy:
Now a days, wind energy is using to produce electricity.
Wind: Moving air is known as wind. So It has kinetic energy and having capacity to do work.
Wind-mill : Wind mill is a plant by which electricity is generated using kinetic energy of wind.
Structure of Wind mill: A windmill essentially consists of a structure similar to a large electric fan that is erected at some height on a rigid support.
Wind Energy Farm: A number of windmills are erected over a large area, which is known as wind energy farm.
Commercial use of wind mill : The energy output of each windmill in a farm is coupled together to get electricity on a commercial scale. By resulting obtained net energy is the sum of electric energy produced by the all wind mill.
Features of Wind Energy:
(i) Wind energy is an environment-friendly and efficient source of renewable energy.
(ii) It requires no recurring expenses for the production of electricity.
Limitation of using Wind Energy:
(i) Wind energy farms can be established only at those places where
wind blows for the greater part of a year.
(ii) The wind speed should also be higher than 15 km/h to maintain the required speed of the turbine.
(iii) there should be some back-up facilities (like storage cells).
(iv) Establishment of wind energy farms requires large area of land.
(v) For a 1 MW generator, the farm needs about 2 hectares of land.
(vi) The initial cost of establishment of the farm is quite high.