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CBSE NOTES ⇒ Class 10th ⇒ Science ⇒ 2. Acids, Bases and Salts

2. Acids, Bases and Salts

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Neutralisation Reaction:

The reaction between an acid and a base to give a salt and water is known as a neutralisation reaction.

In general, a neutralisation reaction can be written as –
Base    +    Acid        →      Salt     +     Water

Reaction With Acids and Bases: 

Sodium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid produces common salt (Sodium chloride) and water. 

NaOH(aq)           +           HCl(aq)       →      NaCl(aq)         +         H2O(l)

(Sodium Hydroxide)   (Hydrochloric Acid)     (Sodium Chloride)           (water) 

Sodium hydroxide reacts with nitric acid produce Sodium Nitrate and water.

NaOH(aq)          +          HNO3 (aq)      →    NaNO3 (aq)    +     H2O (l)

(Sodium Hydroxide)         (Nitric Acid)              (Sodium Nitrate)     (Water)  

Sodium hydroxide reacts with Sulphuric acid produce Sodium Sulphate and water.

NaOH(aq)         +            H2SO4​         →     NaSO4(aq)       +   H2O(l) 

(Sodium Hydroxide)      (Sulphuric Acid)      (Sodium Sulphate)      (water) 


Reaction of Metal-oxides with acid :


​Metal-oxides are basic in nature so they react with acids give salt and water, just like Neutralisation reaction.

Iron III oxide reacts with sulphuric acid gives Iron sulphate and water. 

Fe2O3         +        3 H2SO4            →           Fe2 (SO4)3      +        3 H2

(Ferrous III Oxide)       (Sulphuric Acid )        ( Ferrous Sulphate)     (Water)

Copper oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid gives copper chloride and water. 

CuO            +          2HCl                 →           CuCl2             +         H2O

(Copper Oxide)    (Hydrochloric Acid)     (Copper Chloride)     (Water)

Calcium Oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid produces calcium chloride and water.   

CaO(aq)       +    2HCl(aq)        →         CaCl(aq)     +       H2​O(l)

(Calcium Oxide)    (Hydrochloric Acid)    (Calcium Chloride)       (Water) 


Reaction of bases and non-metalic oxides: 


Non-metalic oxides are acidic in nature which react with base form salt and water which is same as neutralisation reaction. 

Base        +         Non-metalic Oxide        →      Salt            +           water

Sodium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide gives sodium carbinate and water. 

2NaOH(aq)    +          CO2 (g)                  →      Na2CO3(s)    +       H2O

(sodium Hydroxide)    (Carbon dioxide)          (Sodium carbonate)       (water)


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Study Materials List:

CBSE NOTES ⇒ Class 10th ⇒ Science
1. Chemical Reactions and Equations
2. Acids, Bases and Salts
3. Metals and Non-metals
4. Carbon and its Compounds
5. Periodic Classification of Elements
6. Life Processes
7. Control and Coordination
8. How do Organisms Reproduce
9. Heredity and Evolution
10. Light-Reflection and Refraction
11. Human Eye and Colourful World
12. Electricity
13. Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
14. Sources of Energy
15. Our Environment
16. Management of Natural Resources

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