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CBSE NOTES ⇒ Class 10th ⇒ Science ⇒ 3. Metals and Non-metals

3. Metals and Non-metals

Introduction


Metals:

Physical properties of metals:

(i)  Metals are solid and shiny.

(ii) They conduct heat and electricity.

(iii) Metals are ductile. 

(iv) Metals are meliable.

(v) Metals are sonorous. 

Meliability: some metals can be beaten into thin sheets. This property is called malleability.

Ductility: The ability of metals to be drawn into thin wires is called ductility.

All metals have hight melting point. The best conductors of heat are silver and
copper. Lead and mercury are comparatively poor conductors of heat.

The full name of PVC : polyvinylchloride (PVC)

PVC and rubber like materials are bad conductor of heat and electricity.

Sonorous: Sonorous is a physical property of metals. By this property they produce sound on striking. Using this property of metals, school bells is made. 

Non-metals:

carbon, sulpher, oxygen, iodine and hydrogen are non-metals. 

Physical property of Non-metals:

(i)  Non-metals are not solid and shiny.

(ii) They are not good conductor of heat and electricity. 

(iii)  Non-metals are not ductile.

(iv) Non-metals are not melleable. 

(v) Non-metals do not produce sound on striking. 

 

The non-metals are either solids or gases except bromine which is a liquid.

Some other properties of metals nd non-metals:

(i) All metals except mercury exist as solids at room temperature.

(ii) Mercury is found in liquid form at room temperature.

(iii)  Gallium and caesium have very low melting points. These two metals will melt if you keep them on your palm.

(iv)  Iodine is a non-metal but it is lustrous (shiny).

(v)  Alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) are so soft that they can be cut with a knife. They have low densities and low melting points.

Carbon And its Allotrope:

Carbon is a non-metal that can exist in different forms. Each form is called an allotrope.

Allotropes of carbon:

(i) Daimond 

(ii) Graphite

(iii) Buckminsterfullerene

(i) Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, is the hardest natural substance known and has a very high melting and boiling point.

(ii) Graphite, another allotrope of carbon, is a conductor of electricity.

Note: Most non-metals produce acidic oxides when dissolve in water. While metals produce basic oxides when dissolve in water. 

 

 

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Study Materials List:

CBSE NOTES ⇒ Class 10th ⇒ Science
1. Chemical Reactions and Equations
2. Acids, Bases and Salts
3. Metals and Non-metals
4. Carbon and its Compounds
5. Periodic Classification of Elements
6. Life Processes
7. Control and Coordination
8. How do Organisms Reproduce
9. Heredity and Evolution
10. Light-Reflection and Refraction
11. Human Eye and Colourful World
12. Electricity
13. Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
14. Sources of Energy
15. Our Environment
16. Management of Natural Resources

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