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# Notes 4. Carbon and its Compounds - Hydrocarbons | Class 10 Science - Toppers Study

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## Notes 4. Carbon and its Compounds - Hydrocarbons | Class 10 Science - Toppers Study

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## Notes 4. Carbon and its Compounds - Hydrocarbons | Class 10 Science - Toppers Study

Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons: All carbon compounds which contain just carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons.

Formulae of organic compounds:

(i) General formula: General formula represents a function for n numbers of each atom in a molecule.

Example: for alkane: CnH2n+2

(ii) Molecular formula: Molecular formula represents actual number of atoms of a molecule.

Example: For Ethane: C2H6

(iii) Condensed formula: Condensed formula represents group of atoms linked together to each carbon atom.

Example: For Ethane: CH3CH3

(iv) Structural formula: It represents exact arrangement of atom of a molecule.

Example: For Ethane:

(v) Electronic formula: Electronic formula represents the sharing of electrons amongs atoms of a molecules.

Example: For Ethane:

Saturated Carbon Compounds:

Compounds of carbon, which are linked by only single bonds between the carbon atoms are called saturated compounds.

Example: Alkanes like methane, Ethane, propane butane etc.

General formula for Alkanes: CnH2n+2

Using formula for Methane;

CnH2n+2

Putting n =1 we get

C1H2x1 + 2

CH4

Similarily;

For Ethane:

Putting n =2 we get

C2H2x2 + 2

C2H6

Similarily we can find molecular formula for propane, butane, pentane and so on .......

Alkanes: The saturated hydrocarbons in which carbon atom linked together with single bond are called alkenes.

 Name of Alkanes Molecular Formula Condensed structural Formula Methane CH4 CH4 Ethane C2H6 CH3CH3 Propane C3H8 CH3CH2CH3 Butane C4H10 CH3CH2CH2CH3 Pentane C5H12 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 Hexane C6H14 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Heptane C7H16 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Octane C8H18 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Nonane C9H20 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Decane C10H22 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Structure of Methane (single bond);

Single carbon atom has four unsatisfied valency Linked with Hydrogen atom like figure.

Electrone Dot strucuture of Methane

Structure of Ethane (single bond);

C - C [ carbon atoms linked together witha single bond]

Next Linked with Hydrogen atom to carbon unsatisfied valency like given figure;

Electron Dot structure of Ethane

Structure of propane (single bond);

Structure of Butane (single bond);

Structure of pentane (single bond);

Structure of hexane (single bond);

Unsaturated Carbon Compounds:

Compounds of carbon having double or triple bonds between their carbon atoms are called unsaturated compounds.

Example: Alkenes like and Alkynes;

Structure of alkenes (Double bond);

General Formula for Alkenes: CnH2n

The simplest Alkenes is Ethene;

So Ethene has 2 carbon atoms;

Now putting n = 2 in general formula;

C2H2x2 = C2H4

Propene has 3 carbon atoms;

Now putting n = 3 in general formula;

C3H2x3 = C3H6

Similarily we can find the molecular formula for other Alkenes like butene, pentene and hexene etc.

Alkenes: The unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain one or
more double bonds are called alkenes.

 Name of Alkenes Molecular Formula Condensed structural Formula Ethene C2H4 CH2=CH2 Propene C3H6 CH3CH=CH2 Butene C4H8 CH3CH2CH=CH2 Pentene C5H10 CH3CH2CH2CH=CH2 Hexene C6H12 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH=CH2 Heptene C7H14 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH=CH2 Octene C8H16 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH=CH2 Nonene C9H18 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH=CH2 Decene C10H20 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH=CH2

Structural Formula of Alkene:

 Name of Alkenes Molecular Formula Structural Formula Ethene C2H4 Propene C3H6 Butene C4H8 Pentene C5H10 Hexene C6H12 Heptene C7H14 Octene C8H16 Nonene C9H18 Decene C10H20 ​

Electron Dot Sructure of Ethene:

Ethene (C2H4)

Electron Dot Sructure of Propene:

Prooene (C2H4)

Similarily We can draw electron dot structure of other Akenes;

Structure of Alkynes (Triple Bond):

General formula of Alkynes: CnH2n-2

The simplest alkynes is Ethyne;

Ethyne has two carbon atoms. Hence, Using the formula;

Putting n = 2 for Ethyne,

C2H2x2-2 = C2H2

∴ Ethyne = C2H2

Similarily we can find Propyne;

Putting n=3 for Propyne;

C3H2x3-2 = C3H4

∴ Propyne = C3H4

Alkynes:

 Name of Alkenes Molecular Formula Condensed structural Formula Ethyne C2H2 CH≡CH Propyne C3H4 CH≡CCH3 1-Butyne C4H6 CH≡CCH2CH3 1-Pentyne C5H8 CH≡CCH2CH2CH3 1-Hexyne C6H10 CH≡CCH2CH2CH2CH3 1-Heptyne C7H12 CH≡CCH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 1-Octyne C8H14 CH≡CCH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 1-Nonyne C9H16 CH≡CCH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 1-Decyne C10H18 CH≡CCH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Long chain formula is abbreviated as bellow;

[Nonyne] CHCCH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 can be written as

CHC (CH2)6CH3

similarily;

[Decyne] CH≡CCH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 can be written as

CH≡C (CH2)7CH3

Defferences between saturated and unsaturated carbon compound:

 Saturated Compound Unsaturated Compound 1. It has single bond between carbon atoms. 2. There occurs substitution reaction in it. 3. Example: Alkanes. 4. They are less reactive than the unsaturated carbon compound. 1. It has double and triple bond between carbon atoms. 2. There occurs addition reaction in it. 3. Example: Alkenes, Alkynes. 4. They are more reactive than the saturated carbon compounds.