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Solutions ⇒ Class 9th ⇒ Science ⇒ 1. Matter in Our Surroundings

Solutions 1. Matter in Our Surroundings - Chapter Review | Class 9 Science - Toppers Study

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Solutions 1. Matter in Our Surroundings - Chapter Review | Class 9 Science - Toppers Study

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Chapter 1 Science class 9

Chapter Review class 9 Science Chapter 1. Matter in Our Surroundings

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  • Solutions 1. Matter In Our Surroundings - Chapter Review | Class 9 Science - Toppers Study
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1. Matter in Our Surroundings

| Chapter Review |

Solutions 1. Matter in Our Surroundings - Chapter Review | Class 9 Science - Toppers Study


Chapter Review:


  • Everything in this universe is made up of material which scientists have named “matter”.
  • The air we breathe, the food we eat, stones, clouds, stars, plants and animals, even a small drop of water or a particle of sand– each thing is matter.
  • Matters occupy space, that is volume and have mass
  • Early Indian philosophers classified matter in the form of five basic elements – the “Panch Tatva”– air, earth, fire, sky and water.
  • Modern day scientists have evolved two types of classification of matter based on their physical properties and chemical nature.
  • Matter is made up of particles.
  • Particles of matters have space between them. 
  • Particles of matters are continuously moving.
  • When the temperature rises, particles move faster. 
  • Increasing in temperature the kinetic energy of the particles also increases.
  • Particles of matter intermix on their own with each other. They do so by getting into the spaces between the particles.
  • Intermixing of particles of two different types of matter on their own is called diffusion.
  • Particles of matter attract  each others.
  • Particles of matter have force acting between them.
  • There are three states of matter, i.e solid, liquid and gas. 
  • States of matter arise due to the variation in the characteristics of the particles of matter.
  • Solids have a definite shape, distinct boundaries and fixed volumes, that is, have negligible compressibility.
  • Solids have a tendency to maintain their shape when subjected to outside force.
  • Solids may break under force but it is difficult to change their shape, so they are rigid.
  • Liquids have no fixed shape but have a fixed volume.
  • Liquids take up the shape of the container in which they are kept.
  • Liquids flow and change shape, so they are not rigid but can be called fluid.
  • Solids and liquids can diffuse into liquids.
  • The gases from the atmosphere diffuse and dissolve in water.
  • Gases, especially oxygen and carbon dioxide, are essential for the survival of aquatic animals
    and plants.
  • All living creatures need to breathe for survival.
  • The aquatic animals can breathe under water due to the presence of dissolved oxygen in water.
  • Solids, liquids and gases can diffuse into liquids.
  • The rate of diffusion of liquids is higher than that of solids.
  • In the liquid state, particles move freely and have greater space between each other as compared to particles in the solid state.
  • Gases are highly compressible as compared to solids and liquids.
  • Large volumes of a gas can be compressed into a small cylinder and transported easily, due ti its high compressibility.
  • Due to high speed of particles and large space between them, gases show the property of diffusing very fast into other gases.
  • On increasing the temperature of solids, the kinetic energy of the particles increases.
  • Due to the increase in kinetic energy, the particles start vibrating with greater speed.
  • The temperature at which a solid melts to become a liquid at the atmospheric pressure is called its melting point.
  • The melting point of a solid is an indication of the strength of the force of attraction between its particles.
  • The melting point of ice is 273.16 K.
  • The process of melting, that is, change of solid state into liquid state is also known as fusion.
  • The forces of attraction between the particles are maximum in solids, intermediate in liquids and minimum in gases.
  • The states of matter are inter-convertible. The state of matter can be changed by changing temperature or pressure.
  • Sublimation is the change of gaseous state directly to solid state without going through liquid state, and vice versa.
  • Boiling is a bulk phenomenon. Particles from the bulk (whole) of the liquid change into vapour state.
  • The rate of evaporation depends upon the surface area exposed to the atmosphere, the temperature, the humidity and the wind speed.
  • Evaporation causes cooling.
  • Latent heat of vaporisation is the heat energy required to change 1 kg of a liquid to gas at atmospheric pressure at its boiling point.
  • Latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy required to change 1 kg of solid into liquid at its melting point.
  • Solid carbon dioxide is also known as dry ice.
  • Phenomenon of changing of a liquid into vapours at any temperature below its boiling point is called evaporation.
  • Humidity is the amount of water vapour present in air.
  • The temperature at which a liquid starts boiling at the atmospheric pressure is known as its boiling point.

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Solutions ⇒ Class 9th ⇒ Science
1. Matter in Our Surroundings
2. Is Matter around us Pure
3. Atoms and Molecules
4. Structure of The Atom
5. The Fundamental Unit of Life
6. Tissues
7. Diversity in Living Organisms
8. Motion
9. Force and Laws of Motion
10. Gravitation
11. Work and Energy
12. Sound
13. Why Do We Fall ill
14. Natural Resources
15. Improvement in Food Resources

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