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Solutions Chapter 4. The Making of a Global World - Exercise | Class 10 History - Toppers Study

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Chapter 4. The Making of a Global World

| Exercise |

Solutions Chapter 4. The Making of a Global World - Exercise | Class 10 History - Toppers Study


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Q1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.

Answer : Examples of the different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century:
(i) Textiles, spices and Chinese pottery were exchanged by China, India and Southeast Asia in return for gold and silver from Europe.
(ii) Gold and foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, tomatoes and chillies were first exported from the Americas to Europe then Asia.

Q2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.

Answer : 

(i) The global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas because the Native American Indians were not immune to the diseases that the settlers and colonisers brought with them.

(ii) The Europeans were more or less immune to small pox, but the Native Americans, having been cut off from the rest of the world for millions of years, had no defence against it.

(iii) These germs killed and wiped out whole communities, paving the way for foreign domination. Weapons and soldiers could be destroyed or captured, but
diseases could not be fought against.

Q3. Write a note to explain the effects of the following:
a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War.
d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.

Answer: (a) i) When corn Laws were Scraped in Britain, import of food items began. This imported food was cheaper than what was produced there 

ii) This led to land remaining uncultivated and increased unemployment in Britain people began to migrate out of Britain.

(b) i) The cattle  plague or the rinderpest was a disease   spread by the Asian cattles taken to Africa by its European Colonisrs. The  disease infected the African cattle and within no time thousands of the  African cattle died. This destroyed the African economic system which was based upon cattle and land.

2) Thus, unemployed African people were forced to work on European plantations to work on European plantations and mines. In this way, African was colonised.

(c) i) The death of men of working age in Europe because of the world war reduced the able- bodied workforce in Europe. 

(2) With fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war.

(d) (1) Indian economic conditions worsened due to the great depression.

(2) Peasants and farmers incurred heavy losses as price of raw materials fell due to lesser export of it.

(3) They also come under heavy debts.

(4) On the other hand, urban Indian dwellers were least hit by the Depression, because they had enough money to survive the economic slump.

(e) (1) The world,s economic geography changed when the MNCs decided to relocate production operation to Asian countries.

(2) It was done because Asian countries, like  china, offered low were labour in abundance. 

Q4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.

Answer: (1) Technology, in the form of improvements in transport: faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped to move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.

(2) Earlier, animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there. Meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor.

  Then came a new technology namely refrigerated ships, which enable the transport of perishable foods over long distances.

(3) Now, animals were slaughtered for food and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe.

(4) To the Earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat to their diet.

(5) Better living conditions promoted social peace wiothin the country and support and support bfor imperialism abroad.

Q5. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?

Answer: (1) The Breeton Woods Agreement is a framework that was drawn up by the industrial countries to recover the consolidate the economies in the post- war era.

(2) Its main objective was to establish economic stability in the world.

Discuss: 

Q6. Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.

Answer: Hello XYZ

Here, in the Caribbean, the situation is very much different from what I was told before my departure from India. There is no boarding, living eating or medical facilities.

        I have to live at the farm only. The work load is more than my capacity. Daily targets of the work could not be matched. On falling short at output or making any mistake, I have to undergo penalty, sometimes severe punishments. My life has become miserable. I was better at home. I would like to return home as my contract expires.

                                                               Your ABC

Q7. Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic
exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.

Answer:  (1) Flow of Trade- This largely included trade in goods like cloth, wheat, etc. among the countries. In the ninteenth century, Europe emerged  as the new centre of trade.

(2) Flow of Labour: The ninteenth century also saw a high rate of migration of people in search of Job. Large number of people from Europe migrated to America. 

(3) Flow of Capital- Also the ninteenth century, saw the movement of capital short term or long term or long term investments over long distances. European traders  invested money in newly discovered lands and also in Asia to trap the maximum benefits.  
Q8. Explain the causes of the Great Depression.

Answer: (1) The Great Depression began in aropund 1929 and lasted till mid 1930s. During this period, most parts of the world experienced catestrophic declines, in production, employed, income and trade. In general, agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected.

(2) (i) Post war economy of the world was fragile. Agricultural production was a problem. This was made worse by falling agricultural prices. As prices, slumped, agricultural income declined, farmers tried to expand production to maintain their overall income. 

(ii) Many countries financed loans from the US. Now US overseas landers panicked at the sign of financial crisis.

(iii) American capitalists stopped all loans to the European countries, thus, halting all production there.

(iv) Thousands of banks were bankrupt and were forced to close. Factories closed down leading to unemployment. 


Q9. Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?

Answer: (1) (i) G-77 is a group of developing countries who work together to achieve New International Economic order (NIEO).

(ii) The unsatisfactory services of IMF and the World Bank (the Breeton Woods twins) to the newly independent countries led to the emergence of G-77.

(2) (i) After their independence, poor countries were offered financial aid by the Bretton Woods twins. At the same, their natural resources were also controlled by the "twins" in the counter of investments made.

(ii) Thus, the developing countries who wished to develop on the lines of developed countries who wished to develop on the lines of developed industrial countries, did not find it easy to cope up with conditions put forward by Breeton Woods "twins".

  Hence, there occured a reaction and G-77 came into existance. 

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